cancer cell

Tumor Pressure

Elevated pressure in solid tumors can cause metastatic dissemination and treatment resistance, leading to poor prognosis in both humans and animals. 

Monitoring Interstitial Fluid Pressure in Solid Tumors

Increased solid tumor pressure has been recognized as a barrier to effective cancer treatment that leads to poor prognosis in both humans and animals. Solid malignant tumors arise out of tissue or bone and make up a majority cancer diagnoses. The pathophysiologic factors shown to cause increased tumor pressure include the tumor microenvironment, vascular abnormalities, and the proliferation of cancer cells within the tumor. Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) of solid malignant tumors has become a novel biomarker to monitor therapeutic uptake and cancer aggressiveness.

Researchers monitoring tumor IFP in vivo are able to observe a correlation between tumor growth, increased IFP and a decrease in treatment response. This data gives researchers earlier indications as to whether a compound or treatment is having an effect on solid tumor progression. Mice are by far the most commonly used animal model to study the pathogenesis of cancer, as well as the complex interactions between molecules, cells and organs during disease progression. Larger animal models also play a role in cancer research, especially during safety evaluations of novel therapeutics. DSI's wireless pressure sensing technology allows researchers to place a wireless pressure sensor directly into where tumor cells have been injected, giving researchers real time pressure data and a better understanding of the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. 


            Solid tumor pic
            In 2015, 1.49 Million Solid Tumors    
                  were Diagnosed in the US1          

pressure publications citing DSI in 
Google Scholar

Monitoring Tumor-Induced Bone Pressure

Bone tissue is one of the most common sites of metastasis and occurs when cancer cells from a primary tumor, typically breast, lung or prostate, migrate to the bone through the blood stream or lymphatic system. Secondary bone cancer, caused by metastasis, is more common than primary. Currently, there is no cure for bone metastasis, only treatment that reduces its progression.

Animal models used to measure bone pressure range from mice to large animals. The most common technique used to induce tumor associated bone pressure is to inject tumor cells directly into the intramedullary cavity.  Researchers are also studying naturally occurring bone metastasis by injecting cancer cells into the mammary fat pad for breast cancer or directly into the prostate. Left ventricular intracardiac injection is also a popular choice and can be used to determine distal metastasis as well as tumor cell circulation. By measuring tumor pressure within the bone, researchers are finding that the increased pressure caused by tumor growth promotes osteocyte secretion, leading to increased metastasis. Methods to obtain bone pressure include the insertion of a DSI pressure sensor inside the intramedullary cavity of the bone.  

         Bone Pressure 

DSI Pressure Sensing Technology

DSI telemetry is completely implantable and designed for acquiring physiologic data from conscious, freely moving laboratory animals, reducing animal stress and ensuring the most reliable data. Our pressure technology gives researchers the ability to monitor real-time pressure changes in tissues or intravascular. After over 30 years and countless improvements, more than 10,000 pressure implants are used annually to record cardiovascular and non cardiovascular pressure signals in mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, pigs, non-human primates, and other species.  

Telemetry Pressure Implants for Mouse (Miniature) Models
PhystioTel implants are designed for use in mice (including transgenic), hamsters, juvenile rats and other species of similar size. 




Telemetry Pressure Implants for Small Animal Models
PhystioTel implants are designed for use in rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and species of similar size. 

Telemetry Pressure Implants for Large Animal Models
Designed for use in canines, non-human primates, swine, sheep, and species of similar size. Our large animal PhysioTel digital implants give researchers the power of acquiring and analyzing physiologic data from animals in a group housed setting. 




The Power of Ponemah Software
Data collection and analysis for preclinical studies

High resolution image (139 KB)

Easy Experiment Management
  • Save time with intuitive user interface and automated subject setup 
  • Simplify data management with automated file handling
  • Review previous days’ results during acquisition to observe mid-experiment data
  • Visualize sampling configuration and protocols with tabbed sampling layout
  • Use scheduled sampling function to collect periodic data from more subjects at user-defined intervals

Robust Connectivity with 3rd Party Solutions
  • Acquire high quality video recordings in Ponemah's integrated solution with Noldus Media Recorder and synchronize with physiologic signals for better interpretation of your data
  • Import and analyze CNS data - EEG and EMG data with video recordings - in NeuroScore Data Analysis Software 
  • Allow 3rd party applications to view Ponemah derived parameter data with Remote Connection

Flexible Data Analysis
  • Analyze data using time-based averages or on a beat-by-beat basis
  • Immediate results with real-time parameter calculations and trend graph generation
  • Complete control of data analysis with adjustable settings to analyze signals from various species and unique morphologies
  • Automatic export of calculated data to MS Excel® to view and analyze results across multiple days of acquisition

Smart, Powerful Tools
  • Refine data analysis post-acquisition to change how parameters are measured or eliminate signal noise from results
  • Use multiple graph and reporting presentations to view, sort and sync calculated parameters
  • Select data sections to view and report using Data Reduction and Data Parser rules.
  • Receive automated email or text alerts for subject- and system-level conditions


Flexible Licensing Options
  • 3, 6, and 12 month subscription or full purchase options
  • Available for acquisition and post-analysis systems, plus analysis modules
  • Ideal for trials and short-term studies

Ponemah Full System Package

System Set Up

Receivers and Transceivers
Telemetry implants broadcast telemetry data via radio frequency signals to the receiver or transceiver located under or near the cage. Multiple options exist and selection depends on study design. 

Communication Manager
The MX2 for small animals or the CLC for large animals manage communication between your chosen implant and Ponemah software. Fully calibrated telemetry data acquisition, optimized to maintain data integrity throughout the system. 

Ambient Pressure Reference (APR-2)
The APR-2 is a special type of barometer that measure atmospheric pressure during dynamic corrections via a digital signal to the computer. It is required when measuring pressure via pressure transmitters in order to compensate for the absolute (relative to a vacuum) measurements taken by the transmitters. 

Network Hardware
DSI recommends using a dedicated network to permit the hardware to communicate to the computer. A router is used to assign IP addresses and a switch with PoE (Power over Ethernet) is used to power the hardware and allow multiple connections to the network. 

Bone Pressure Publications Citing DSI Technology: 

Kwon, R. Y., Meays, D. R., Tang, W. J., & Frangos, J. A. (2010). Microfluidic Enhancement of Intramedullary Pressure Increases Interstitial Fluid Flow and Inhibits Bone Loss in Hindlimb Suspended Mice. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 25(8), 1798–1807.

Sottnik, J. L., Dai, J., Zhang, H., Campbell, B., & Keller, E. T. (2015). Tumor-Induced Pressure in the Bone Microenvironment Causes Osteocytes to Promote the Growth of Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases. Cancer Research,75(11), 2151-2158. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-14-2493


1U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. U.S. Cancer Statistics Data Visualizations Tool, based on November 2017 submission data (1999-2015): U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute;, June 2018.