Pain and Analgesia

The experience of pain is multifaceted, involving emotional, cognitive, and sensory components. In healthy subjects its serves to guide an organism to take appropriate response during injury or to avoid physical harm. When dysregulated, pain responses to noxious stimuli may be exaggerated (hyperalgesia) or may be experienced in context of a stimulus that is normally non-noxious (allodynia).  


Rodent models are used to provide insight into the biological mechanisms underlying pain perception, identify pain-related therapies, and in screening drugs for undesired side effects. Pain protocols involve both evoked (thermal, mechanical or chemical stimulation) and non-evoked responses (spontaneous).

Common Applications

  • Arthritis and Osteoarthritis
  • Safety Pharmacology
  • Postoperative Pain
  • Cancer
  • Chronic Pain
  • Drug Screening
  • Spinal Cord Injuries
  • Neuropathies

Studying Neural Activity Related to Pain Processing?

Ask us about the digital output options available for the Electronic Von Frey, Pincher and SMALGO platforms, which support synchronization to external recordings and neural stimulation devices.


Recent References

Tail Flick (Thermal)
1. Jabbari S, Bananej M, Zarei M, Komaki A, Hajikhani R. Effects of intrathecal and intracerebroventricular microinjection of kaempferol on pain: possible mechanisms of action. Res Pharm Sci. 2021 Mar 5;16(2):203-216.

2. Yarushkina NI, Komkova OP, Filaretova LP. Influence of forced treadmill and voluntary wheel running on the sensitivity of gastric mucosa to ulcerogenic stimuli in male rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2020 Dec;71(6).

3. Tyrtyshnaia AA, Egorova EL, Starinets AA, Ponomarenko AI, Ermolenko EV, Manzhulo IV. N-Docosahexaenoylethanolamine Attenuates Neuroinflammation and Improves Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Rats with Sciatic Nerve Chronic Constriction Injury. Mar Drugs. 2020 Oct 15;18(10):516.

Hot-Cold Plate (Thermal)
4. Li N, Liu Q, Li RT, Sun Q, Jiang YM, Ye J. Anti-arthritic Effect of the Spirocyclopiperazinium Salt Compound LXM-15 in Rats and Its Underlying Mechanism. Inflammation. 2020 Jun;43(3):903-915.

5. Adnan S, Ranjha NM, Hanif M, Asghar S. O-Carboxymethylated chitosan; A promising tool with in-vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in albino rats. Int J Biol Macromol. 2020 Aug 1;156:531-536.

6. Qabazard B, Masocha W, Khajah M, Phillips OA. H2S donor GYY4137 ameliorates paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2020 Jul;127:110210.

7. Pacheco AGM, Pacheco EJ, Macedo LARO, et al. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of Hymenaea martiana Hayne (Fabaceae) in mice. Braz J Biol. 2021;82:e240359.

8. Arana-Argáez VE, Domínguez F, Moreno DA, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of an ethanol extract from Senna septemtrionalis. Inflammopharmacology. 2020;28(2):541-549.

Electronic Von Frey (Mechanical)
9. Rapacz A, Rybka S, Obniska J, et al. Analgesic and antiallodynic activity of novel anticonvulsant agents derived from 3-benzhydryl-pyrrolidine-2,5-dione in mouse models of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Eur J Pharmacol. 2020;869:172890.

10. Dziubina A, Szkatuła D, Gdula-Argasińska J, Kotańska M, Filipek B. Antinociceptive, antiedematous, and antiallodynic activity of 1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridine-1,3(2H)-dione derivatives in experimental models of pain. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2020;393(5):813-827.