Seizure Research

A seizure is an episode of increased or irregular electrical activity
in the brain that can present as a single event or exhibit recurrent characteristics (epilepsy). There is currently no cure for seizure
disorders and animal models remain vital to increase our
understanding of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms
and in new treatment development.

Common Causes of Seizures

  • Epilepsy
  • High fever
  • Hyposomnia
  • Hyponatremia 
  • Medications
  • Traumatic Brain Injury or Head Trauma
  • Stroke
  • Brain Tumor
  • Illegal or Recreational Drug Use
  • Alcohol Abuse or Withdrawal


Commonly Used Species in Seizure Research

Mouse Silhouette




Guinea Pig

Guinea Pigs



non-human primate

Nonhuman Primates

We have created this table of seizure models to provide you with more information regarding the various species, EEG placement, and applications that have been studied in seizure research.



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This paper provides researchers with the following information:
a) a summary of the most commonly researched neurological disease and
psychiatric disorders
b) observations regarding in vivo physiologic endpoints of interest
c) the products used to collect these endpoints.

CNS, Neuroscience, Preclinical Neuroscience, Animal models of neuroscience, CNS animal models

DSI Solutions are Trusted by Seizure Researchers Get Meaningful Answers Out of Their Studies

Seizure detection is collected by quantitative EEG and qualitative behavioral scoring. Because seizures can occur due to a variety of causes or lead to complications in other organ systems, additional endpoints are of interest to researchers for a more holistic view. DSI provides a wide range of validated seizure solutions to fit researcher needs during the many stages of their research.

Click on a research area below to learn more about endpoints of interest collected in seizures studies.


In vivo electrophysiological recordings, mainly electroencephalograms (EEG), are invaluable in the diagnosis of seizures in preclinical and clinical settings. EEGs are highly translatable and provide information about electrical activity of animal or human brains during and in the absence of seizures. When EEGs are combined with video monitoring, this powerful multimodal approach adds validity to studies through synchronized recording of brain activity and behavior analysis for seizure confirmation and observation of therapeutic effects. 

Common Endpoints

Electroencephalogram (EEG)


Electromyogram (EMG)



In vitro - Extracellular Field and Action Potential

In vitro - Ion Selectivity

*In Vitro solutions are available from our Harvard Bioscience sister brands Multichannel Systems and Heka Elektronik. Reach out to us to learn more about how to incorporate these solutions into your current research set-up.

Google Scholar Indexes 329 Publications Citing DSI, Seizure and EEG


Common behavioral responses observed during a seizure include freezing or shift of attention, loss of consciousness, and violent or rhythmic muscle contractions. Researchers use many different behavioral assays to study changes during seizure activity as well as the effects of repetitive seizures in epileptic disorders. Video tracking and monitoring can be combined with EEG tracing to provide the most accurate picture of seizure activity in animal models.  

Common Endpoints

Locomotor Activity

Motor Coordination

Circadian Tasks

Working and Spatial Memory


Nest-building and Burrowing Behavior

Grip Strength

Fear Conditioning

*Behavioral solutions are available from our Harvard Bioscience sister brands Panlab and Coulbourn Instruments. Reach out to us to learn more about how to incorporate these solutions into your current research set-up.

Google Scholar Indexes 230 Publications Citing DSI, Seizure and Video
Google Scholar Indexes 498 Publications Citing Panlab and Seizure
Google Scholar Indexes 711 Publications Citing Coulbourn and Seizure


Seizures are known to cause autonomic dysfunction, contributing to possible conduction disturbances within the heart. This can lead to a higher risk of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy through changes in heart rate variability,  increases in QT interval, and arrhythmias that can occur before, during, or after a seizure. 

Common Endpoints

Mean Arterial Pressure

Heart Rate

Pulmonary Blood Pressure


Google Scholar Indexes 152 Publications Citing DSI, Seizure and Cardiovascular


Complications in respiratory function are commonly observed prior to and during seizure events. These include changes in respiratory rate, respiratory pausing, hypercapnia, hypoxemia, and aspirations. While most seizures don't lead to respiratory complications, SUDEP (sudden unexpected death in epilepsy) is linked to low oxygen levels that occur due to seizure activity. Tonic-clonic, uncontrolled and night time seizures increases a persons risk of SUDEP. Researchers will commonly combine respiratory monitoring with electrophysiology in their seizure studies to improve acute treatment outcomes. 

Common Endpoints

Breathing Frequency

Inspiratory and Expiratory Duration

Peak Airflow Rates

Specific Airway Resistance

Volume and Functional Residual Capacity

Respiratory Muscle Function


Google Scholar Indexes 90 Publications Citing Buxco and Seizure


Hyperthermia has been shown to affect temperature sensitive ion channels, increasing excitability within the brain which can trigger seizure activity. The most common causes of seizures associated with increases in core body temperature are febrile seizures and exposure to high temperature conditions, such as heat stroke.

Common Endpoints

Core Body Temperature

Localized Temperature

Ambient Temperature



Google Scholar Indexes 355 Publications Citing DSI, Seizure and Temperature


Both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia can trigger seizures, particularly in diabetic patients with uncontrolled glucose levels caused by insulin errors, illness or altered metabolic states. Chronic glucose monitoring in seizure models can provide a better understanding of how alterations in glucose metabolism affects the electrical activity in the brain.

Common Endpoints


Blood Glucose




Google Scholar Indexes 154 Publications Citing DSI, Seizure and Glucose

Highlighted Publications

Authier, S., Paquette, D., Gauvin, D., Sammut, V., Fournier, S., Chaurand, F., & Troncy, E. (2009). Video-electroencephalography in conscious non human primate using radiotelemetry and computerized analysis: refinement of a safety pharmacology modelJournal of pharmacological and toxicological methods60(1), 88-93.

Bassett, L., Troncy, E., Pouliot, M., Paquette, D., Ascah, A., & Authier, S. (2014). Telemetry video-electroencephalography (EEG) in rats, dogs and non-human primates: methods in follow-up safety pharmacology seizure liability assessmentsJournal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods70(3), 230-240.

Cho, K. O., & Jang, H. J. (2020). Comparison of different input modalities and network structures for deep learning-based seizure detectionScientific reports10(1), 1-11.

Cho, K. O., Lybrand, Z. R., Ito, N., Brulet, R., Tafacory, F., Zhang, L., ... & Scharfman, H. E. (2015). Aberrant hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to epilepsy and associated cognitive decline. Nature communications6(1), 1-13.

Colasante, G., Lignani, G., Brusco, S., Di Berardino, C., Carpenter, J., Giannelli, S., ... & Marenna, S. (2020). dCas9-based Scn1a gene activation restores inhibitory interneuron excitability and attenuates seizures in Dravet syndrome miceMolecular Therapy28(1), 235-253.

Deshpande, T., Li, T., Henning, L., Wu, Z., Müller, J., Seifert, G., ... & Bedner, P. (2020). Constitutive deletion of astrocytic connexins aggravates kainate‐induced epilepsyGlia.

Dubé, C. M., Molet, J., Singh-Taylor, A., Ivy, A., Maras, P. M., & Baram, T. Z. (2015). Hyper-excitability and epilepsy generated by chronic early-life stressNeurobiology of stress2, 10-19.

Dürmüller, N., Guillaume, P., Lacroix, P., Porsolt, R. D., & Moser, P. (2007). The use of the dog electroencephalogram (EEG) in safety pharmacology to evaluate proconvulsant riskJournal of pharmacological and toxicological methods56(2), 234-238.

Fisher, N. M., Gould, R. W., Gogliotti, R. G., McDonald, A. J., Badivuku, H., Chennareddy, S., ... & Lindsley, C. W. (2020). Phenotypic profiling of mGlu7 knockout mice reveals new implications for neurodevelopmental disordersGenes, Brain and Behavior.

Gage, M., Golden, M., Putra, M., Sharma, S., & Thippeswamy, T. (2020). Sex as a biological variable in the rat model of diisopropylfluorophosphate‐induced long‐term neurotoxicity. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.

Joosen, M. J., Smit, A. B., & van Helden, H. P. (2011). Treatment efficacy in a soman-poisoned guinea pig model: added value of physostigmine?Archives of toxicology85(3), 227-237.

Kim, H. Y., Yang, Y. R., Hwang, H., Lee, H. E., Jang, H. J., Kim, J., ... & Kim, J. I. (2019). Deletion of PLCγ1 in GABAergic neurons increases seizure susceptibility in aged mice. Scientific reports9(1), 1-15.

Krook-Magnuson, E., Armstrong, C., Oijala, M., & Soltesz, I. (2013). On-demand optogenetic control of spontaneous seizures in temporal lobe epilepsyNature communications4(1), 1-8.

Loughman, A., Bowden, S. C., & D'Souza, W. J. (2017). Self and informant report ratings of psychopathology in genetic generalized epilepsyEpilepsy & Behavior67, 13-19.

Löscher, W. (2011). Critical review of current animal models of seizures and epilepsy used in the discovery and development of new antiepileptic drugsSeizure20(5), 359-368.

Lumley, L. A., Rossetti, F., de Araujo Furtado, M., Marrero-Rosado, B., Schultz, C. R., Schultz, M. K., ... & Wasterlain, C. G. (2019). Dataset of EEG power integral, spontaneous recurrent seizure and behavioral responses following combination drug therapy in soman-exposed rats. Data in brief27, 104629.

Möller, C., van Dijk, R. M., Wolf, F., Keck, M., Schönhoff, K., Bierling, V., & Potschka, H. (2019). Impact of repeated kindled seizures on heart rate rhythms, heart rate variability, and locomotor activity in rats. Epilepsy & Behavior92, 36-44.
Nersesyan, H., Hyder, F., Rothman, D. L., & Blumenfeld, H. (2004). Dynamic fMRI and EEG recordings during spike-wave seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in WAG/Rij ratsJournal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism24(6), 589-599.

Niquet, J., Lumley, L., Baldwin, R., Rossetti, F., Suchomelova, L., Naylor, D., ... & Wasterlain, C. G. (2020). Rational polytherapy in the treatment of cholinergic seizures. Neurobiology of disease133, 104537.

Schilling, W. P., McGrath, M. K., Yang, T., Glazebrook, P. A., Faingold, C. L., & Kunze, D. L. (2019). Simultaneous cardiac and respiratory inhibition during seizure precedes death in the DBA/1 audiogenic mouse model of SUDEP. PloS one14(10), e0223468.

Trosclair, K., Dhaibar, H. A., Gautier, N. M., Mishra, V., & Glasscock, E. (2020). Neuron-specific Kv1. 1 deficiency is sufficient to cause epilepsy, premature death, and cardiorespiratory dysregulation. Neurobiology of Disease137, 104759.

Tse, K., Puttachary, S., Beamer, E., Sills, G. J., & Thippeswamy, T. (2014). Advantages of repeated low dose against single high dose of kainate in C57BL/6J mouse model of status epilepticus: behavioral and electroencephalographic studiesPloS one9(5), e96622.

Weiergräber, M., Henry, M., Hescheler, J., Smyth, N., & Schneider, T. (2005). Electrocorticographic and deep intracerebral EEG recording in mice using a telemetry systemBrain research protocols14(3), 154-164.
White, A. R., Tiwari, D., MacLeod, M. C., Danzer, S. C., & Gross, C. (2020). PI3K isoform-selective inhibition in neuron-specific PTEN-deficient mice rescues molecular defects and reduces epilepsy-associated phenotypes. Neurobiology of Disease144, 105026.