Infectious Disease

coronavirus, MERS, SARS, Covid-19

Free On Demand Webinar
Infectious Disease Research: A Holistic Approach to Physiologic Data Collection and Model Development
Presenters: Anna Honko, PhD and Doug Reed, PhD

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi. The U.S. government and many other governments and organizations around the world are engaged to help reduce the prevalence and incidence of these diseases through studying the pathogenesis of infectious disease, leading to increased treatment options.


Infectious Disease articles citing DSI in Google Scholar

Current Research Methods
Basic and applied research methodologies evaluate physiologic changes associated with infections and often include assessment of physiologic parameters or biomarkers such as temperature, fever, respiratory function, heart rate, and heart rate variability.

When comparing diseases in animals with diseases in humans, researchers consider additional information such as time to onset of disease/condition, progression of disease and signs and symptoms of the disease. Physiologic changes lead to characterization of triggers that identify the optimal time for intervention for potential treatment regimens.  

Wireless, implantable telemetry and unrestrained respiratory plethysmography are proven technologies designed for monitoring and collecting data from conscious, freely moving laboratory animals to mimic clinical scenarios determining desirable therapeutic effect. 


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Infectious Disease Toolkit


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Learn how DSI solutions are helping researchers form powerful conclusions in coronavirus research!


Infectious Disease Solutions


DSI offers several different small and large animal implant combinations to measure different parameters including pressure, biopotentials, temperature, respiratory rate, respiratory volume, and activity. 

Remote Notification Email

Convenient, automated alerts for subject-level and system-level conditions. Continuous physiologic monitoring should not need your undivided attention. Avoid unnecessary entrance into BSL environments to check on your studies.  Remote Notification saves you time and provides peace of mind by monitoring subject health and system functionality, notifying you when necessary.

FP WBP 2-Site System - Mouse

Measure respiratory parameters during infectious disease progression in an unrestrained environment in conscious models. Need more direct measurements? We've got you covered. Solutions available to evaluate lung function measuring invasive resistance, dynamic compliance and elastance data in anesthetized animals. 

1 level_7 mouse_ pleth_plenum_neb_inflow_photometer

Inhalation and exposure systems that deliver exact or relative doses of microorganisms or treatments through nose only or whole body exposure. With the inhalation tower, researchers have the one-of-a-kind Accumulated Inhaled Aerosol parameter at their fingertips that allows the user to target a specific deposition and cease exposure to each individual subject or continue to expose at a fixed duration, and report on their unique accumulated inhaled aerosol at the end. 

Peer-Reviewed Infectious Disease Publications

Respiratory Endpoints

Mycobacterium tuberculosis Sulfolipid-1 Activates Nociceptive Neurons and Induces Cough
Ruhl, C. R., Pasko, B. L., Khan, H. S., Kindt, L. M., Stamm, C. E., Franco, L. H., … Shiloh, M. U. (2020, March 5).

Study looking at the mechanisms of cough reflex in M. tuberculosis guinea pig models. Cough and respiratory data were collected and analyzed using unrestrained whole-body plethysmography and software (Buxco FinePointe)

Development, Characterization, and Standardization of a Nose-Only Inhalation Exposure System for Exposure of Rabbits to Small-Particle Aerosols Containing Francisella tularensis.
O’Malley, K. J., Bowling, J. D., Barry, E. M., Hazlett, K. R. O., & Reed, D. S. (2019, August 1). 

Infectious disease, Francisella tularensis, exposed to rabbits to develop standardized model and decrease variability in future studies. Respiratory function data was collected (Buxco XA or FinePointe software) in real time during the aerosol exposures, while animals were unrestrained in whole-body plethysmography chambers (Buxco).

Quantification of regional aerosol deposition patterns as a function of aerodynamic particle size in rhesus macaques using PET/CT imaging

Dabisch, P. A., Battelle National Biodefense Institute, Department of Homeland Security, DHS) Science and Technology Directorate, S&t, National Biodefense Analysis, & Federally Funded Research and Development Center. (n.d.).

Characterization of deposition patterns of inhaled aerosol particle size and virulence in non-human primates. Imaging was used to quantify deposition patters and allow the same animals to be exposed to different particle sizes. During each particle size challenge, all subject respiratory function was monitored using respiratory induction plethysmography (DSI JET).

Genetically Engineering a Susceptible Mouse Model for MERS-CoV-Induced Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
Leist, S. R., & Cockrell, A. S. (2019, December 28).  Retrieved March 22, 2020, from 

Evaluating the use of genetically modified mouse models in Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus vaccine and treatment studies. Researchers exposed mice intranasally to MERS virus and used unrestrained whole-body plethysmography (Buxco) to monitor respiratory function as additional metric for morbidity.

An aerosol challenge model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques
Sharpe, S. A., White, A. D., Sibley, L., Gleeson, F., Hall, G. A., Basaraba, R. J., … Dennis, M. J. (2017). . Plos One12(3).

Pilot study using a less genetically diverse non-human primate to look for more reproducible responses to M. tuberculosis infection. Head-out plethysmography chambers (Buxco) were used during intranasal exposure to measure respired volume.

Temperature Endpoints

Immunogenicity and Efficacy of a Measles Virus-Vectored Chikungunya Vaccine in Nonhuman Primates
Rossi, L, S., E, J., Wang, Eryu, Azar, … C, S. (2019, May 3).  

A new measles virus-vectored chikungunya vaccine and challenge study was evaluated in non-human primates. Implantable telemetry (DSI) was used to monitor body temperature and activity.  

Avian H5N1 influenza virus infection causes severe pneumonia in the Northern tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri)
Sanada, T., Yasui, F., Honda, T., Kayesh, M. E. H., Takano, J.-ichiro, Shiogama, Y., Kohara, M. (2019, January 19). 

Avian influenza viruses studied in Northern tree shrews as suitable animal model for avian flu research. Researchers monitored fever and activity with implantable telemetry (DSI).\

Using Telemetry Data to Refine Endpoints for New Zealand White Rabbits Challenged with Bacillus anthracis
Dawson, G, D., Bower, Kristin, Burnette, N, C., … Angelo. (2017, November 1).  

Study looking at early indicators of death in New Zealand white rabbits exposed to Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) to improve animal welfare. Animals were challenged with anthrax using inhalation or subcutaneous techniques. Implantable telemetry (DSI) was used to monitor sudden increases of body temperature.

Cardiovascular Endpoints

Electrocardiography Abnormalities in Macaques after Infection with Encephalitic Alphaviruses
Ma, Henry, Lundy, O’Malley, J., K., B., W., … Reed. (2019, November 16).

Non-human primates were exposed to Encephalitis Alphaviruses to evaluate electrocardiogram (ECG) changes throughout disease progression. A respiratory inductance plethysmography system was used during exposure to monitor respiratory function and implantable telemetry (DSI) collected ECG data during the course of the study.

Comparative study characterizing human models of equine encephalitis viruses in exposed cynomolgus macaques. Respiratory induction plethysmography used during exposure and software (Ponemah) collected respiratory function data. Implantable telemetry (DSI) was used to monitor electrocardiogram and temperature data throughout study.