Neuroscience Solutions

Click image above to view DSI's Neuroscience Animation.

Neuroscience explores how the nervous system of humans or animal models develops, is organized, and functions to generate behavior.  Tools can be used to explore the anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, or molecular biology of nerves and nervous tissue (Purves, D. et al.  Neuroscience, 4th ed.  Page 1.  Sinauer Associates, Inc.  2008.).

Nerve cells, or neurons, are organized into neural circuits that receive, process, and transmit electrical (and chemical) signals.  Electrophysiological recordings can monitor the electrical activity of these circuits by placing electrodes near or within the nerve cells of interest.  These recordings include:

  • Individual neuron action potentials (spikes)
  • Low frequency field potential (LFP)
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG) or brain waves
  • Electromyogram (EMG) or muscle activity
  • Electrooculogram (EOG) or eye movements
  • Peripheral Sympathetic Nerve Activity (SNA)
  • Activity/sedation
  • Behavior

By monitoring the electrical activity of neural circuits, we can obtain a great deal of information that helps us learn more about nervous system function and seek ways to prevent or cure numerous neurologic and psychiatric disorders such as: sleep conditions, seizures or epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, behavior, neurodegenerative diseases, and more.

DSI offers a variety of CNS solutions for studies involving restrained or freely moving animal models.  These solutions offer flexibility, reliable performance and quality to satisfy your research needs.

Select any of the links below to learn more about the solutions offered from DSI

Implantable Telemetry     


DSI’s PhysioTel™ implants are designed for monitoring and collecting data from conscious, freely moving laboratory animals—providing stress-free data collection while eliminating percutaneous infections. PhysioTel implants are offered in different sizes to support a variety of research animal models ranging from mice and rats to dogs and non-human primates. The shape of DSI implants are also designed to accommodate various surgical placements including subcutaneous and intraperitoneal placement.


DSI offers several implant models to help researchers monitor one or several physiologic parameters from a single animal.  The following table summarizes DSI’s implantable telemetry offerings for neuroscience applications.



Biopotential Channel Count





XS (Mouse)

ETA-F10, ETA-F20, EA-F20, HD-X11


SA (Rat, Guinea Pig)

CA-F40, CTA-F40, HD-S11, HD-S21




LA (Dog, NHP)

CTA-D70, D70-PCT, D70-PCTP, L21, L11




Hardwired Monitoring Systems


DSI’s hardwired systems offer easy to use, high-quality designs to obtain accurate results for various restrained applications including those that require short-term monitoring, high throughput of research subjects, or high bandwidth signal acquisition.  Record one or several biopotential signals with our versatile acquisition hardware. 


DSI provides the necessary components to facilitate acquisition of neuroscience data and our hardwired systems interface with a researcher’s preferred electrode configuration. 



Software – Data Acquisition


DSI offers two software platforms to help researchers facilitate acquisition of their neuroscience data; Ponemah™ and Dataquest A.R.T.™  Both offer optional video modules if behavioral study endpoints are important to your research. 


If researchers prefer to acquire their data in a 3rd party system, DSI offers analog output solutions for the majority of its neuroscience implants.

Software – Data Analysis


After data acquisition has taken place, DSI’s NeuroScore™ software can be used to efficiently analyze chronic data sets common to neuroscience studies.  This modular platform offers sleep scoring, seizure detection, video synchronization, and batch processing capabilities.  The following list summarizes typical use-case scenarios for several applications that are supported by the NeuroScore software:


Rodent Sleep

  • 2 EEG signals, 1 EMG signal, Activity
  • Slow Wave Sleep (SWS), Paradoxical Sleep, Wake, and Active Wake sleep stages can be assigned


Large Animal Sleep

  • 1 EEG Signal, 1 EOG Signal, 1 EMG Signal, Activity
  • Non- REM (N1, N2, N3), REM, Wake, and Active Wake sleep stages can be assigned



  • Identify individual spikes and spike trains based on EEG amplitude thresholds and other spike characteristics

Each of DSI’s solutions for neuroscience research consists of the recommended sensors, hardware, software, and accessories needed to reliably and accurately collect and analyze your data.


Shown here are common, recommended system setup diagrams for DSI’s neuroscience solutions.


Small Animal Implantable Telemetry System

Large Animal Implantable Telemetry System (PhysioTel Digital)

Implantable Telemetry System – Analog Output to 3rd Party Software

Hardwired Monitoring System

Many scientific articles have been published using DSI system for neuroscience research applications. The following is a selection of articles listed by species.


Tang X, Sanford LD.  “Telemetric recording of sleep and home cage activity in mice.”  Sleep. 2002 Sep 15;25(6):691- 9.

Weiergräber M, Henry M, Hescheler J, Smyth N, Schneider T.  “Electrocorticographic and deep intracerebral EEG recording in mice using a telemetry system.”  Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2005 Apr;14(3):154-64.

Zhang S, Zeitzer JM, Sakurai T, Nishino S, Mignot E.  “Sleep/wake fragmentation disrupts metabolism in a mouse model of narcolepsy.”  J Physiol. 2007 Jun 1;581(Pt 2):649-63.

Glickstein SB, Moore H, Slowinska B, Racchumi J, Suh M, Chuhma N, Ross ME.  “Selective cortical interneuron and GABA deficits in cyclin D2-null mice.”  Development. 2007 Nov;134(22):4083-93.

Olivadoti MD, Opp MR.  “Effects of i.c.v. administration of interleukin-1 on sleep and body temperature of interleukin-6-deficient mice.”  Neuroscience. 2008 Apr 22;153(1):338-48.

Ahnaou A, Dautzenberg FM, Geys H, Imogai H, Gibelin A, Moechars D, Steckler T, Drinkenburg WH.  “Modulation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu2) elicits common changes in rat and mice sleep-wake architecture.”  Eur J Pharmacol. 2009 Jan 28;603(1-3):62-72.

Colic S, Wither R, Eubanks JH, Zhang L, Bardakjian BL.  “EEG analysis for estimation of duration and inter-event intervals of seizure-like events recorded in vivo from mice.”  Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2011;2011:2570-3.

El-Hayek YH, Wu C, Chen R, Al-Sharif AR, Huang S, Patel N, Du C, Ruff CA, Fehlings MG, Carlen PL, Zhang L.  “Acute postischemic seizures are associated with increased mortality and brain damage in adult mice.”  Cereb Cortex. 2011 Dec;21(12):2863-75.

Beamer E, Otahal J, Sills GJ, Thippeswamy T. “N (w) -propyl-L-arginine (L-NPA) reduces status epilepticus and early epileptogenic events in a mouse model of epilepsy: behavioural, EEG and immunohistochemical analyses.”  Eur J Neurosci. 2012 Nov;36(9):3194-203.

Machida M, Yang L, Wellman LL, Sanford LD.  “Effects of stressor predictability on escape learning and sleep in mice.”  Sleep. 2013 Mar 1;36(3):421-30.  


Bastlund JF, Jennum P, Mohapel P, Vogel V, Watson WP.  “Measurement of cortical and hippocampal epileptiform activity in freely moving rats by means of implantable radiotelemetry.”  J Neurosci Methods. 2004 Sep 30;138(1-2):65-72.

Williams P, White A, Ferraro D, Clark S, Staley K, Dudek FE.  “The use of radiotelemetry to evaluate electrographic seizures in rats with kainate-induced epilepsy.”  J Neurosci Methods. 2006 Jul 15;155(1):39-48.

Beig MI, Bhagat N, Talwar A, Chandra R, Fahim M, Katyal A.  “Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram and blood pressure in conscious telemetered rats during ictal state.”  J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2007 Jul-Aug;56(1):51-7.

Kadriu B, Guidotti A, Costa E, Auta J. “Imidazenil, a non-sedating anticonvulsant benzodiazepine, is more potent than diazepam in protecting against DFP-induced seizures and neuronal damage.” Toxicology. 2009 Feb 27;256(3):164-74.

Kinkead R, Montandon G, Bairam A, Lajeunesse Y, Horner R.  “Neonatal maternal separation disrupts regulation of sleep and breathing in adult male rats.”  Sleep. 2009 Dec;32(12):1611-20.

Moscardo E, Rostello C.  “An integrated system for video and telemetric electroencephalographic recording to measure behavioural and physiological parameters.”  Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods.  2010;62(1):64-71.
Wasterlain CG, Stöhr T, Matagne A.  “The acute and chronic effects of the novel anticonvulsant lacosamide in an experimental model of status epilepticus.”  Epilepsy Res. 2011 Mar;94(1-2):10-7.

Diack C, Ackaert O, Ploeger BA, van der Graaf PH, Gurrell R, Ivarsson M, Fairman D.  “A hidden Markov model to assess drug-induced sleep fragmentation in the telemetered rat.”  J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2011 Dec;38(6):697-711.
Langston JL, Wright LK, Connis N, Lumley LA.  “Characterizing the behavioral effects of nerve agent-induced seizure activity in rats: increased startle reactivity and perseverative behavior.”  Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2012 Jan;100(3):382-91.

Seke Etet PF, Palomba M, Colavito V, Grassi-Zucconi G, Bentivoglio M, Bertini G.  “Sleep and rhythm changes at the time of Trypanosoma brucei invasion of the brain parenchyma in the rat.”  Chronobiol Int. 2012 May;29(4):469-81.

De Araujo Furtado, Marcio, et al. "Spontaneous recurrent seizures after status epilepticus induced by soman in Sprague‐Dawley rats." Epilepsia, 51.8 (2010): 1503-1510.

White, Andrew M., et al. "Efficient unsupervised algorithms for the detection of seizures in continuous EEG recordings from rats after brain injury."
Journal of Neuroscience Methods,152.1 (2006): 255-266.

Katalan, Shahaf, et al. "Magnesium sulfate treatment against sarin poisoning: dissociation between overt convulsions and recorded cortical seizure activity." Archives of Toxicology, 87.2 (2013): 347-360.

Guinea Pig

Mumford H, Wetherell JR.  “A simple method for measuring EEG in freely moving guinea pigs.”  J Neurosci Methods.  2001 May 30;107(1-2):125-30.

Joosen MJ, van der Schans MJ, van Helden HP.  “Percutaneous exposure to the nerve agent VX: Efficacy of combined atropine, obidoxime and diazepam treatment.”  Chem Biol Interact. 2010 Oct 6;188 (1):255-63.

Mumford H, Troyer JK.  “Post-exposure therapy with recombinant human BuChE following percutaneous VX challenge in guinea-pigs.”  Toxicol Lett. 2011 Sep 25;206(1):29-34.

Wang Y, Oguntayo S, Wei Y, Wood E, Brown A, Jensen N, Auta J, Guiodotti A, Doctor BP, Nambiar MP.  “Neuroprotective effects of imidazenil against chemical warfare nerve agent soman toxicity in guinea pigs.”  Neurotoxicology. 2012 Mar;33(2):169-77.

Non-human Primate

Pearce PC, Crofts HS, Muggleton NG, Ridout D, Scott EA.  “The effects of acutely administered low dose sarin on cognitive behaviour and the electroencephalogram in the common marmoset.”  J Psychopharmacol. 1999;13(2):128-35.

Authier S, Paquette D, Gauvin D, Sammut V, Fournier S, Chaurand F, Troncy E.  “Video-electroencephalography in conscious non human primate using radiotelemetry and computerized analysis: refinement of a safety pharmacology model.”  J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2009 Jul- Aug;60(1):88-93.

Barraud Q, Lambrecq V, Forni C, McGuire S, Hill M, Bioulac B, Balzamo E, Bezard E, Tison F, Ghorayeb I.  “Sleep disorders in Parkinson's disease: the contribution of the MPTP non-human primate model.”  Exp Neurol. 2009 Oct;219(2): 574-82. 


Dürmüller, Niklaus, Philippe Guillaume, Pierre Lacroix, Roger D. Porsolt, and Paul Moser. "The use of the dog electroencephalogram (EEG) in safety pharmacology to evaluate proconvulsant risk." Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods 56, no. 2 (2007): 234-238.

This information is provided in good faith and believed accurate at the time of writing. No responsibility will be taken, or liability accepted, for damages arising from the use of information herein.