Combined Applications

DSI solutions have been used in combination with many other technologies for various research applications in both small and large animal models. Below are examples of combined techniques researchers have used. If you would like to discuss your application, click the schedule a free consultation button below. 

Whole Body Plethysmography and Telemetry 

Publications combining WBP with Telemetry

Whole body plethysmography (WBP) and telemetry remain the recommended techniques for obtaining physiological assessments in small animals. Combining WBP and telemetry endpoints, such as EEG, ECG, EMG, and pressure, provides researchers looking at holistic effects and multi organ interactions with powerful data from one subject. 

 WBP and Telemetry 

  • Obtain both respiratory and cardiovascular endpoints
  • Longitudinal study approaches
  • Understand the interactions between organ systems
  • Utilize the same Ponemah software platform

Examples of applications that benefit from this integrated approach include: 
  • Sleep apnea
  • Asthma
  • Earlier drug development safety assessments
  • Circadian Rhythm
  • Cardiorespiratory interactions 
  • Heart failure
  • Spinal injury
  • Anxiety
  • Recreational and addictive drug effects
  • Epilepsy  

Forced Exercise and Telemetry

Forced exercise is used by researchers to induce and study physiologic stress responses, as well as assess acute and chronic adaptation to exercise in particular genetic models and/or disease states. Treadmills are the preferred method over voluntary running wheels due to the standardization across all subjects and increased levels of stress hormones and cytokines. Studies are enhanced by integrating telemetry to measure cardiovascular endpoints, leading to a better understanding of the full response on the cardiovascular system. 


  • Observe stress induced cardiovascular changes in real time 
  • Study acute stress response or chronic stress exposure
  • Physiological data and video synchronization 
  • New insight into forced exercise 

Examples of applications that benefit from this integrated approach include: 
  • Exercise physiology
  • Stress response
  • Cardiac disease models
  • Heart rate variability 

Fear Conditioning and Telemetry

Forced immobilization is commonly used as a model of stress in small laboratory animals, especially for inducing physiological stress to mimic human situations in small enclosures (claustrophobia).  Researchers will look at this induced psychological stress and decipher the mechanisms involved in the adaptation to stress, as well as pathology/disease development. Combining telemetry with fear conditioning can provide real-time cardiovascular, temperature and/or glucose data that will show the physiological effects of psychological stress in acute and chronic studies. 

Fear conditioning

  • Observe stress induced physiological changes in real time 
  • Study acute stress response or chronic psychological stress exposure
  • Full intensity motorization of the animal's emotional state during the psychological stress induction procedure

Examples of applications that would benefit from this integrated approach include: 
  • Post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD)
  • Stress and emotion
  • Anxiety 
  • Depression

Metabolism and Cardiovascular Telemetry 

The link between metabolism and the cardiovascular system has been getting more attention in the 21st century with the increased rate of obesity and type two diabetes, and their link to cardiovascular disease. Researchers are using animal models to assess early, mid and late stage metabolic diseases, as well as metabolic circadian rhythm and hibernation trends. By adding hemodynamic parameters with metabolic and hibernation studies, researchers are able to assess blood pressure, ECG, blood glucose, temperature and activity in a single animal. The combination of these applications also helps to separate excitement responses due to room entry or food offering, and actual changes in blood glucose. DSI technology provides continuous glucose and cardiovascular telemetry data collection, providing a less stressed environment, leading to reliable and translatable data. 

HD S11 and XG
  • Observe real time physiologic data
  • Stress free data collection, leading to more accurate data
  • A more comprehensive picture of whole animal cardiovascular and metabolic physiology

Examples of applications that would benefit from this integrated approach include: 
  • Hibernation studies
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Heart Failure