Infusion Solutions

Until recently, tethered infusion was the most commonly employed technique in laboratory animals and primarily with rats. But technological advancements made in recent years, offer systems that combine smart, networked pumps with centralized control and monitoring software to automate this process.
DSI has partnered with PrimeTech Corporation to provide customers with the iPRECIO® implantable, programmable and refillable infusion pump. This device can be completely implanted in small laboratory animals subcutaneously. Thus, the animal moves freely without any restrain (i.e. tethering) during drug infusion. Additionally, infection risk is reduced, and the animal is likely to be significantly less stressed than in a tethered infusion model.

The iPRECIO® implantable infusion pump uses a patented, microprocessor controlled peristalsis mechanism for accurate controlled flow. It is the only implantable and programmable pump for small laboratory animals. iPRECIO® can infuse fluids continuously for as long as six months and it can be refilled via a percutaneously accessible port.

Combine Drug Infusion and Telemetry Signal Measurement

iPRECIO® infusion pumps which are implantable, programmable and refillable will provide benefits of syringe pumps and other implantable pumps combined in one unit. When combined with the gold standard of DSI telemetry, sophisticated implantable infusion pumps will lead to ever more sensitive and powerful means of detecting drug induced therapeutic and/or adverse effects.

iPRECIO® is an innovative micro infusion pump that uses patented mechanical pump technology to accurately infuse fluids at the discretion of the investigator rather than the limitations of the technology. In contrast to other commercially available pumps, iPRECIO® enables researchers to run chronic infusion studies while assuring subjects are receiving accurate infusion rates at predetermined schedules. A refillable reservoir can be accessed percutaneously via a septum, enabling researchers to extend protocols and obtain desired endpoints not easily accomplished with other technologies. (Durations dependant on chosen flow rates.)

iPRECIO® enables investigators to set infusion protocols prior to the start of the study. Start & Stop day/time, Flow rate/mode and infusion duration/mode are all user set.

The completed protocol is downloaded to the pump via USB and ready for implant. The maximum total Infusion Volume is 4.5 – 5.6 ml, dependent on flow rates ranging between 1µL/hr - 30µL/hr.

iPRECIO® Flow Rate Options include:

  • Constant Flow Rate Mode: Configure one constant flow rate for infusion between 1 – 30 µl/hr
  • Variable Flow Rate Mode: Configure up to10 discrete infusion “steps” between 1 – 30 µl/hr
  • Recovery Mode: Manage your infusion start time by incorporating post surgical recovery time in your protocol. You can now time initial infusion to meet your needs!
  • Repeat Mode: Program circadian rhythm, multiple dose regimens or studies for dose response curves-only with iPRECIO®

Refill In Vivo
Run chronic infusion studies without the need to replace empty pumps. Port access to the pump reservoir enables researchers to continue infusions without subjecting the animal to additional surgeries or increasing study subjects. iPRECIO®’s proprietary management software calculates refill windows and allows users to adjust volumes to ensure continued article delivery at accurate rates.

A Complete Infusion Telemetry Solution

DSI transmitters are designed to collect and transmit chronic data from conscious freely moving animals. Our comprehensive physiologic monitoring platform provides flexibility and accuracy not available from any other vendor. Telemetric monitoring supports the 3R’s, by reducing animal numbers, refining study design and replacing labor intensive study methods.

Adding telemetry to a chronic infusion protocol using the iPRECIO® infusion pump enables researchers to run better studies and increase the likelihood of new discoveries in research areas such as:

  • Neuroscience
  • Cardiovascular Disease
  • Diabetes
  • Drug Discovery
  • And many more!

Combining technologies advances infusion applications. Researchers can wirelessly monitor a fully ambulatory infusion model that is chronically delivered test article at accurate rates. The best of both worlds with no wires or tubes.

iPRECIO® models optimized for mouse and rat infusion studies are both available. Telemetry data may also be collected simultaneously (not shown).
New publications

Imai T., Nakata E., Inoue K.
Inhibition of P2X4 receptor on spinal microglia attenuates mechanical allodynia in experimental autoimmune neuritis rats
Pain Research, Vol. 26 2011, O-59

Asemu G., O’Connell K.A., Cox J.W., Dabkowski E.R., Xu W., Ribeiro R.F. Jr., Shekar K.C., Hecker P.A. Rastogi S., Sabbah H.N., Hoppel C.L., and Stanley W.C.
Enhanced Resistance to Permeability Transition in Interfibrillar Cardiac Mitochondria in Dogs: Effects of Aging and Long Term Aldosterone Infusion
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ajpheart.00674.2012; published ahead of print December 15, 2012, doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00674.2012

Zaretsky D.V., Zaretskaia M.V., Durant P.J., Rusyniak D.E.
The use of microinfusion pump to perform intrahypothalamic injections in conscious rats.
Neuroscience 2012, New Orleans, USA., October 13th - 17 2012.

Patar, A., Jaafar, H., Jamalullail, S. M. S. S., & Abdullah, J. M.
The body wall crude extract of Stichopus variegatus promotes repair of acute contused spinal cord injury in rats by improving motor function and reduces intramedullary hemorrhage.
Biomed Res, 2012, 23(4), 483.22.

Sasaki N, Shinjo M, Hirakawa S, Nishinaka M, Tanaka Y, Mawatari K, Kitamori T, Sato K.
A palmtop-sized microfluidic cell culture system driven by a miniaturized infusion pump.
Electrophoresis. 2012 Jul;33(12):1729-35. doi: 10.1002/elps.201100691.

Buehler PW, Baek JH, Lisk C, Connor I, Sullivan T, Kominsky D, Majka S, Stenmark KR, Nozik-Grayck E, Bonaventura J, Irwin DC.
Free hemoglobin induction of pulmonary vascular disease: evidence for an inflammatory mechanism.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012 Aug;303(4):L312-26. Epub 2012 Jun 22.

Yoshinori T., Kenji S., Kazuharu S., and Gozoh T.
Extracellular phosphorylation is a novel target for regenerative medicine against spinal cord injury. The FASEB Journal.

Malicdan MC, Noguchi S, Tokutomi T, Goto Y, Nonaka I, Hayashi YK, and Nishino I.
Peracetylated N-acetylmannosamine, a synthetic sugar molecule, efficiently rescues muscle phenotype and biochemical defects in mouse model of sialic acid-deficient myopathy.
J Biol Chem. 2012 Jan 20; 287(4):2689-705. Epub 2011 Dec 8

Perron J., Frenette V., and Copeman C.
Validation and use of the iPRECIO® Micro Infusion Pump on GLP studies
Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, United States, March 11th to 14th 2012.

Copeman C, Perron J., Trudel Y., Caron S., Emond F., Frenette, and Burr M.
Intraputamenal Infusion in the albino rat
Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting, San Francisco, United States, March 11th to 14th 2012.

Wood S.K., McFadden D.V., Grigoriadis D., Bhatnagar S. and Valentino R.J.
Depressive and cardiovascular disease co-morbidity in a rat model of social stress: a putative role for corticotropin-releasing factor
Psychopharmacology 2012 Feb 10. [Epub ahead of print]

Clarke I.J., Smith J.T., Henry B.A., Oldfield B.J., Stefanidis A., Millar R.P., Sari I.P., Chng K., Fabre-Nys C., Caraty A., Ang B.T., Chan L., and Fraley G.S.
Gonadotropin-Inhibitory Hormone Is a Hypothalamic Peptide That Provides a Molecular Switch between Reproduction and Feeding.
Neuroendocrinology (DOI: 10.1159/000332822) First published online January 25, 2012.

Kusanagi A., Yamasaki J., Iwatani C., Tsuchiya H. and Torii R.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 24(1) 222-222

Iwatani C., Yamasaki J., Kusanagi A., Tsuchiya H. and Torii R.
127 Ovarian stimulation in cynomolgus monkeys by a controlled release of follicular-stimulating hormone utilizing a micro infusion pump.
Reproduction, Fertility and Development 24 (1) 176-176

Tan T., Watts S. W. and Davis R. P.
Drug delivery: enabling technology for drug discovery and development. iPRECIO Micro Infusion Pump: programmable, refillable, and implantable.
Front. Pharmacol. 2:44. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2011.00044 [click here] to access full article on

Osborn J., presenter; Fink G., discussant
Implantable infusion pumps for chronic rodent studies.
Workshop: Rodent Instrumentation Workshop M. Knuepfer, Experimental Biology, Washington DC.; April 9th to 13th 2011

Yoshinori T.,
Extracellular protein phosphorylation promotes functional recovery from experimental spinal cord injury.
The 6th International Symposium on Receptor Mechanisms, Signal Transduction and Drug Effects
- Development of Novel Therapy to Specific Disease in organ -, Kyoto, Japan; April 1st and 2nd 2011

Schnell C. and Ferrat T.,
Use of novel programmable pump for intracranial administration in an orthotopic glioblastoma tumor model in rats.
DSI User Group Meeting, Paris, France; March 17th 18th 2011

Martel E.
Refined rat pharmacology studies with infusion using implantable pumps.
DSI User Group Meeting, Paris, France; March 17th 18th 2011

Douglas G., Jones H., Edgington A., Saunders K., Neil Morgan S, Pullen N and Parenty G.
GPR54 agonists a way forward for downregulation of the GnRH pathway?
10th International Symposium on GnRH, Salzburg, Austria, Feb 6th -8th 2011

Shobo M., Yamada H., Koakutsu A., Hamada N., Fujii M, Harada K., Ni K., and Matsuoka N.,
Chronic treatment with olanzapine via a novel infusion pump induces adiposity in male rats.
Life Sciences, Volume 88, Issues 17–18, 25 April 2011, Pages 761-765 []

Chikara Abe, Kunihiko Tanaka, Chihiro Iwata, and Hironobu Morita
Vestibular-mediated increase in central serotonin plays an important role in hypergravity-induced hypophagia in rats
J Appl Physiol, 2010 Sep 16 [Epub ahead of print]; [PubMed Link]

Yamato M., Okuyama K., Jin GH., Eguchi A., Watanabe Y., Kataoka Y.
Endogenous IL-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist in the brain are involved in poly I:C-induced immunological fatigue
The 33rd Annual Meeting of the Japan Neuroscience Society, Kobe, Japan., September 2nd – 4th 2010.

Stephanie W. Watts
The Evolving Story of 5-HT and Blood Pressure Mechanisms in a Muddle
Serotonin Club 2010, Montreal, Canada, July 9-11 2010

Susan K. Wood
Insights into pharmacotherapy for co-morbid depression and cardiovascular disease using a rodent model of social stress
iPRECIO® Luncheon Seminar, EB2010, Anaheim, United States, April 20-24 2010

Patrick Davis, Gregory D Fink, Bridget Seitz, and Stephanie W Watts
Serotonin infusion via the iPrecio® micro infusion pump results in repeated reductions in blood pressure in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat.
FASEB J. 2010 24:lb551 [Abstract in the FASEB Journal]

Jay Gizzi, Theodore Baird, Kyle O'Donohue, Josh Yoder, Jessica Grenwis, and Heather Bogie
Optimization of a fully implantable small animal infusion model involving multi-pressure data collection.
FASEB J. 2010 24:lb571 [Abstract in the FASEB Journal]

Shobo M., Yamada H., Koakutsu A., Harada K., Ni K., and Matsuoka N.
Effect of long-term electrical infusion of olanzapine on fat weight in rats: a novel method for administration of biologically and/or chemically fragile compounds.
The 83rd Annual Meeting of the Japanese Pharmacological Society, Osaka, Japan, March 16th -18th 2010

Abe C., Tanaka K., Awazu H., Morita H.
The role of the vestibular system on the metabolism under hypergravity environment in rats: Implication for motion sickness.
Neuroscience 2009, Chicago, USA., October 17th - 21st 2009.

Yamato M., Okuyama K., Jin GH., Eguchi A., Watanabe Y., Kataoka Y.
Interleukin-1 β expression in the brain is involved in poly I:C-induced immunological fatigue-like behavior in rats
The 32nd Annual Meeting of the Japan Neuroscience Society, Nagoya, Japan., September 16th - 18th 2009.

Coles D.I., Warr A., Mead A.
Characterization of Pentobarbital Physical Dependance and Withdrawal in Rats
9th. Safety Pharmacology Society Annual Meeting, Strasbourg, France., September 15th - 18th 2009.

Infusion Pumps for Small Laboratory Animals
ALN Magazine May/June 2009

Iwatani C., Yamasaki J., Okahara-Narita J.,Tsuchiya H., Torii R.
Research Center for Animal Life Science Shiga University of Medical Science
Follicular stimulation with micro infusion pump in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)
The 56th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science 2009, Omiya Sonic City, Japan., May13th - 16th 2009.

Abe C, Tashiro T, Tanaka K, Ogihara R, Morita H.
A novel type of implantable and programmable infusion pump for small laboratory animals.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods. 2008 Sep 22. [PubMed Link]

Emiko Matsuoka, Makoto Miyazaki, Kazunori Iwanaga, and Masao Kakemi.
Assessment of Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Relationship of Vitamin B12 in the Treatment of Somnipathy in Rats
14th Annual Meeting of Japanese Society for Chronobiology, Tokyo, Japan, November 7-9 2007

Free Full text articles in Pub Med Central

Administration of Substances to Laboratory Animals
All published 2011.

Administration of Substances to Laboratory Animals: Equipment Considerations, Vehicle Selection, and Solute Preparation
Patricia V Turner, Cynthia Pekow, Mary Ann Vasbinder, and Thea Brabb
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011 September; 50(5): 614–627. Published online 2011 September.

Administration of Substances to Laboratory Animals: Routes of Administration and Factors to Consider
Patricia V Turner, Thea Brabb, Cynthia Pekow, and Mary Ann Vasbinder
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2011 September; 50(5): 600–613. Published online 2011 September.

Drug Delivery: Enabling Technology for Drug Discovery and Development. iPRECIO® Micro Infusion Pump: Programmable, Refillable, and Implantable
Tsung Tan, Stephanie W. Watts, and Robert Patrick Davis
Front Pharmacol. 2011; 2: 44. Published online 2011 July 29. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2011.00044