Glucose, diabetes, cancer, oncology

Glucose Metabolism

Diabetes and unstable blood glucose levels have been linked to an increased risk of liver, pancreatic, endometrium, colon and rectum, breast and bladder cancer

Cancer Metabolism
Cancer cells are known for their ability to proliferate through unregulated cellular metabolism, invasion and metastasis. The driver is their ability to alter their energy production from oxidative phosphorylation to a glucose-dependent glycolytic pathway, regardless of oxygen availability, known as the Warburg effect (fig.1). 1  The correlation between high blood glucose and tumor malignancy is leading researchers to look at what role diet and type two diabetes may play in activating or promoting tumor cell growth.

Recently released research looking at almost 20 million individuals has shown that women with diabetes had a 27% higher risk of cancer than women without diabetes, while men with diabetes are at a 19% greater risk of cancer than men without diabetes. 2

Treatment Altered Glucose Metabolism
Cancer treatments have been shown to alter the way humans metabolize glucose, causing induced hyperglycemia and Type 2 diabetes (T2D). Treatment related hyperglycemia and T2D have been shown to occur in several anticancer therapies such as anti-PD-1, TKIs, glucocorticoid dexamethasone, and L-asparaginase.3 

The most commonly used animal model in glucose research are mice, who are able to be genetically modified to have conditions such as obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, and/or satiety hormone disorders. Genetically altered rats are also being used on a smaller scale and researchers are finding that larger animal models, like minipigs and non-human primates, are beneficial to studying translational research. Monitoring blood glucose remains the gold standard biomarker of glucose metabolism in cancer research and provides increased translatability to the clinical setting.   


glucose publications citing DSI in 
Google Scholar

Warburg Effect
Figure 1

rat and doughnut

Benefits of Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Cancer Research Using Telemetry

  • Real-time blood glucose responses during tumor progression using the most humane way to monitor.
  • Continuous glucose data showing dose-response relationships between hyperglycemic inducing cancer treatments and daily glycemic variability, leading to more optimized treatment schedules in the clinic. 
  • Reduction in blood sampling, decreased risk of infection and decreased animal stress. 
  • A complete profile of glucose levels looks at pharmacodyanic/pharmacokinetic relationship and safety in preclinical models.
  • Achieve the same statistical power with fewer animals (3R's) using telemetry.
  • Measure glucose, core body temperature, pressure (in large animals) and activity in the same animal. 

DSI Glucose Sensing Technology

DSI telemetry is completely implantable and designed for acquiring physiologic data from conscious, freely moving laboratory animals, reducing animal stress and ensuring the most reliable glucose data. Our glucose monitoring technology offers researchers the ability to observe continuous real-time blood glucose levels for a minimum of 28 days. 

Glucose Telemetry Implants for Mouse (Miniature), Small Animals, and Large Animal Models
PhystioTel glucose implants are designed for use in a range of research models, from mice to non-human primates. For more information about glucose study models, visit our glucose metabolism solutions page

HD XG Mouse





The Power of Ponemah Software
Data collection and analysis for preclinical studies

High resolution image (139 KB)

Easy Experiment Management
  • Save time with intuitive user interface and automated subject setup 
  • Simplify data management with automated file handling
  • Review previous days’ results during acquisition to observe mid-experiment data
  • Visualize sampling configuration and protocols with tabbed sampling layout
  • Use scheduled sampling function to collect periodic data from more subjects at user-defined intervals

Robust Connectivity with 3rd Party Solutions
  • Acquire high quality video recordings in Ponemah's integrated solution with Noldus Media Recorder and synchronize with physiologic signals for better interpretation of your data
  • Import and analyze CNS data - EEG and EMG data with video recordings - in NeuroScore Data Analysis Software 
  • Allow 3rd party applications to view Ponemah derived parameter data with Remote Connection

Flexible Data Analysis
  • Analyze data using time-based averages or on a beat-by-beat basis
  • Immediate results with real-time parameter calculations and trend graph generation
  • Complete control of data analysis with adjustable settings to analyze signals from various species and unique morphologies
  • Automatic export of calculated data to MS Excel® to view and analyze results across multiple days of acquisition

Smart, Powerful Tools
  • Refine data analysis post-acquisition to change how parameters are measured or eliminate signal noise from results
  • Use multiple graph and reporting presentations to view, sort and sync calculated parameters
  • Select data sections to view and report using Data Reduction and Data Parser rules.
  • Receive automated email or text alerts for subject- and system-level conditions


Flexible Licensing Options
  • 3, 6, and 12 month subscription or full purchase options
  • Available for acquisition and post-analysis systems, plus analysis modules
  • Ideal for trials and short-term studies

Ponemah Full System Package

System Set Up

Receivers and Transceivers
Telemetry implants broadcast telemetry data via radio frequency signals to the receiver or transceiver located under or near the cage. Multiple options exist and selection depends on study design. 

Communication Manager
The MX2 for small animals or the CLC for large animals manage communication between your chosen implant and Ponemah software. Fully calibrated telemetry data acquisition, optimized to maintain data integrity throughout the system. 

Ambient Pressure Reference
(only needed if using M1G)

The APT-2 is a special type of barometer that measure atmospheric pressure during dynamic corrections via a digital signal to the computer. It is required when measuring pressure via pressure transmitters in order to compensate for the absolute (relative to a vacuum) measurements taken by the transmitters.

Network Hardware
DSI recommends using a dedicated network to permit the hardware to communicate to the computer. A router is used to assign IP addresses and a switch with PoE (Power over Ethernet) is used to power the hardware and allow multiple connections to the network. 

Glucose References Citing DSI Technology
Several posters and publications have been written related to the use of DSI's continuous glucose telemetry.  Click on the reference title below to view the poster or publication abstract. Copies of posters and publications are available upon request. 

Glucose Poster Abstracts

  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring During Pregnancy in Healthy Mice - February 2021

  • Contrasting effects of afferent and efferent vagal nerve stimulation on insulin secretion and blood glucose regulation

  • Afferent vs. efferent cervical vagal nerve stimulation: effects on blood glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations in rats

  • Sustained effect of glucagon on body weight and blood glucose: Assessed by continuous glucose monitoring in diabetic rats

  • Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring Reveals Enormous Circadian Variations in Pregnant Diabetic Rats

  • From Mouse to Monkey: Revolutionizing Research via Preclinical Continuous Glucose Telemetry

  • Use Of Real-Time Glucose Monitoring In Rats To Investigate Changes In Glucose Excursions And Hypoglycemia After Bariatric Surgery

  • Non-insulin determinant pathways maintain glucose homeostasis upon metabolic surgery

  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring Reduces Stress and Improves Metabolic Data Quality in Mice

  • Changes in blood glucose as a function of body temperature in laboratory mice: implications for daily torpor

  • High Fat Diet Induced Hypertension is Associated with a Pro-Inflammatory T Cell Profile in Male and Female Dahl Salt Sensitive Rats

  • Improved glucose homeostasis in male obese Zucker rats coincides with enhanced baroreflexes and activation of the nucleus tractus solitarius

  • Glucagon receptor agonists

  • Dosage regimen for a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor

  • Continuous glucose and food intake monitoring in the male ZDSD rat: Comparison of normal and high-fat diets - EB 2014

  • Long-term blood glucose monitoring with implanted telemetry device in conscious and stress-free cynomolgus monkeys - JEI 2017

  • Letter to the Editor: Diabetes in rats is cured by islet transplantation… but only during daytime - CT 2016

  • Accuracy of Continuous Glucose Telemetry throughout a Stepped Hyperinsulinemic-Euglycemic-Hypoglycemic Clamp in Rats - ADA 2017

  • The Effect of Blood Glucose Telemeter Implantation on Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing and Glucose Monitoring in Diet-Induced Obese Mouse - AALAS 2016

  • Continuous Blood Glucose Monitoring in a Rat Model of Islet Transplantation - EASD 2016

  • Artificial Intelligence Based Artificial Pancreas System In an Animal Model of Stress Induced Hyperglycemia - ADA 2016

  • Continuous Glucose Measurements Using Telemetry in Male and Female Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats on a High-Fat Diet - EB 2016

  • Unlocking a More Comprehensive Assessment of Diet with Continuous, Chronic Blood Glucose and Complete Hemodynamic Monitoring in Rodents - EB 2016

  • Blood Glucose Fluctuations during Daily Activities and Stress Procedures in Cynomolgus Monkeys Monitored By Implanted Telemetry Device - ENDO 2016

  • Changes in Blood Glucose, Blood Pressure, Heart Rate and Temperature in Rats Challenged with Either Low Carbohydrate, or High Carbohydrate Treats Following a 12 Hour Fast: Changes Tracked Using Dual Telemetry Implants - ENDO 2016

  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring for Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism Research in Rodents - Webinar 2015

  • Impact of a High-Fat Diet on Blood Glucose and Blood Pressure in Female and Male Dahl Salt-Sensitive Rats - APS 2015

  • Fully Implantable Arterial Blood Glucose Device for Metabolic Research Applications in Rats for Two Months - JDST 2015

  • Long-term Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Conscious Stressfree Nonhuman Primates with Implanted Telemetry Device - ADA 2015

  • Telemetry for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Rats - AALAS 2015

  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring via Telemetry in Rats - MTS 2015

  • Assessment of the hyperglycemia profile of NVP-BYL719, a selective inhibitor of the class Ia PI3K isoform alpha using real-time continuous glucose monitoring via radio-telemetry in rats - AACR-NCI-EORTC 2015

  • Continuous recording of blood glucose reveals that taste modulates the blood glucose response to a gavaged glucose load - SSIB 2015

  • Modulation of Blood Glucose Concentration by Vagal Nerve Stimulation - EB 2015

  • 28-day Continuous Glucose Profiles Via Implantable Telemetry in Mice - ENDO 2015

  • Continuous Glucose Correlation with Food Intake in the Male C57BL Mouse - SWCIB 2015

  • Continuous glucose and food intake monitoring in the male ZDSD rat: Comparison of normal and high-fat diets - SSIB 2014

  • Assessment of Insulin Response in STZ Rats Using Continuous Glucose Telemetry - ADA2014

  • Assessment of Insulin Response in STZ Rats Using Continuous Blood Glucose Telemetry – Keystone 2014

  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring via Telemetry in Rats - EASD 2013

  • Comparison of Continuous Glucose Monitoring Systems in Type 1 Rat Model - ADA 2013

  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring via Telemetry in Rats – ADA 2013

  • Time-dependent effects of ipragliflozin on behaviour and energy homeostasis in normal and type 2 diabetic rats: continuous glucose telemetry analysis

  • Decreased complexity of glucose dynamics preceding the onset of diabetes in mice and rats

  • Comparison of Continuous Glucose Monitoring between Dexcom G4 Platinum and HD-XG Systems in Nonhuman Primates (Macaca Fascicularis)

  • Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Female NOD Mice Reveals Daily Rhythms and a Negative Correlation With Body Temperature - En 2017

  • Rhythmic Differences of Blood Glucose Circadian Between Normoglycemic and Diabetic Non-Human Primates - ADA 2017

  • Novel Telemetry Technology for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Mice - MTS 2016

  • Evaluation of a prototype HD-XG telemetry implant for real-time continuous glucose monitoring in mice - FELASA 2016

  • Advantages of Glucose Monitoring with Implantable Telemetry in Freely Moving Conscious Nonhuman Primates - ADA 2016


Tekade, R. and Sun, X. (2017). The Warburg effect and glucose-derived cancer theranostics. Drug Discovery Today, 22(11), pp.1637-1653.

2 Ohkuma, T., Peters, S. A., & Woodward, M. (2018). Sex differences in the association between diabetes and cancer: Asystematic review and meta-analysis of 121 cohorts including 20 million individuals and one million events. Diabetologia, 61(10), 2140-2154. doi:10.1007/s00125-018-4664-5

Goldman, J. W., Mendenhall, M. A., & Rettinger, S. R. (2016). Hyperglycemia Associated With Targeted Oncologic Treatment: Mechanisms and Management. The Oncologist, 21(11), 1326–1336.