Reduction, Refinement and Replacement:
In Russell and Burch’s 1959 landmark textbook, ‘The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique’ the authors combined the concepts of excellence in research with modern animal welfare concerns and together advanced the principles of Reduction, Refinement, and Replacement for research using live animals. In the ensuing decades, Russell and Burch's ‘Three R’s’ have become the philosophical foundation of all modern animal welfare legislation and guidelines for the use of animals in laboratory research.
Data Sciences International (DSI), the innovator and manufacturer of fully implantable wireless telemetry, provides a unique and proprietary technology for around the clock monitoring of conscious, freely moving laboratory animals. The use of telemetry to collect chronic stress-free physiologic data from conscious untethered and unrestrained animals is uniformly aligned with the principles of the "Three R’s"
Reduction: Telemetry has been shown to dramatically reduce the number of animals needed for individual research studies. The open access to data at investigator defined intervals enables the use of randomized block study designs. Randomized designs drastically reduce the number of animals while achieving necessary study statistical power.
Refinement: Implantable telemetry enhances research protocols by minimizing stress and increases molecule throughput by reducing overall study costs. Cost reduction is achieved by extending animal usage across protocols and freeing staff time by minimizing direct subject involvement through automated data acquisition and analysis.
Replacement: The Safety Assessment industry continues to advance and address the need for increased molecule throughput by developing new test procedures that include state of the art in vitro test and new animal models that allow the replacement of higher order research animals with those of lower species. Adapting telemetry to these rising models is the only way to maximize model effectiveness and obtain the data necessary to make decisive drug development decisions.
Additionally, the drug safety assessment discipline appears to be changing as recent ICH guidance includes verbiage recommending investigators consider the benefits of incorporating safety endpoints into toxicology studies. This would not be possible without telemetry and most recently has been enhanced by the availability of respiratory and cardiovascular parameters through jacketed telemetry products like DSI’s JET.
American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: http://www.aalas.org
American Veterinary Medical Association: http://www.avma.org
Americans for Medical Progress Educational Foundation: http://www.AMProgress.org
American Welfare Information Center: http://awic.nal.usda.gov/nal_display/index.php?info_center=3&tax_level=1
Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International: www.aaalac.org
Foundation for Biomedical Research: http://www.fbresearch.org
Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: www.nap.edu/books/0309053773/html/index.html
National Association for Biomedical Research http://www.nabr.org/
National Institute of Health, Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare: http://grants1.nih.gov/grants/olaw/
National Institute of Health Office of Science Education: http://science-education.nih.gov/
PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals: http://grants.nih.gov/grants/olaw/references/phspol.htm
States United for Biomedical Research: www.statesforbiomed.org
Toxicology Education Foundation and Society of Toxicology: http://www.toxicology.org/publicoutreach/air/air.html
United States Dept. of Agriculture, Animal Care: www.aphis.usda.gov/ac
United States Food and Drug Administration: www.fda.gov